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Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Xianggang Tebie Xingzhengqu

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Country name:
conventional long form: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
conventional short form: Hong Kong
local short form: Xianggang
local long form: Xianggang Tebie Xingzhengqu
abbreviation: HK
Dependency status:
special administrative region of China
Government type:
Administrative divisions:
none (special administrative region of China)
none (special administrative region of China)
National holiday:
National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 1 July 1997 is celebrated as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Establishment Day
Basic Law approved in March 1990 by China's National People's Congress is Hong Kong's "mini-constitution"
Legal system:
based on English common law
direct election 18 years of age; universal for permanent residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years; indirect election limited to about 100,000 members of functional constituencies and an 800-member election committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies
Executive branch:
chief of state: President of China JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993)
head of government: Chief Executive TUNG Chee-hwa (since 1 July 1997)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of three ex-officio members and 10 appointed members; ex-officio members are: Chief Secretary Donald TSANG Yam-kuen (since 1 May 2001), Financial Secretary Antony LEUNG (since 1 May 2001), and Secretary of Justice Elsie LEUNG (since 1 July 1997)
elections: NA
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Council or LEGCO (60 seats; 30 indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 24 elected by popular vote, and 6 elected by an 800-member election committee; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 10 September 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Democratic Party 12, Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong 10, Liberal Party 7, Frontier Party 5, Hong Kong Progressive Alliance 4, New Century Forum 2, Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood 1, independents 19
Judicial branch:
The Court of Final Appeal in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Political parties and leaders:
Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood [Frederick FUNG Kin-kee, chairman]; Citizens Party [Alex CHAN Kai-chung]; Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong [Jasper TSANG Yok-sing, chairman]; Democratic Party [Martin LEE Chu-ming, chairman]; Frontier Party [Emily LAU Wai-hing, chairwoman]; Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood [leader NA]; Hong Kong Progressive Alliance [Ambrose LAU Hon-chuen]; Liberal Party [James TIEN Pei-chun, chairman]; New Century Forum [NQ Ching-fai, chairman]
note: political blocs include: pro-democracy - Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood, Citizens Party, Democratic Party, Frontier Party; pro-Beijing - Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Progressive Alliance, Liberal Party, New Century Forum
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong; Confederation of Trade Unions (pro-democracy) [LAU Chin-shek, president; LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary]; Federation of Hong Kong Industries; Federation of Trade Unions (pro-China) [LEE Chark-tim, president]; Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China [Szeto WAH, chairman]; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union [CHEUNG Man-kwong, president]; Liberal Democratic Federation [HU Fa-kuang, chairman]
International organization participation:
APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC, ESCAP (associate), ICC, ICFTU, IHO, IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ISO (correspondent), WCL, WMO, WToO (associate), WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (special administrative region of China)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General Michael KLOSSON
consulate(s) general: 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong
mailing address: PSC 464, Box 30, FPO AP 96522-0002
telephone: [852] 2523-9011
FAX: [852] 2845-1598
Flag description:
red with a stylized, white, five-petal bauhinia flower in the center


Economy - overview:
Hong Kong has a bustling free market economy highly dependent on international trade. Natural resources are limited, and food and raw materials must be imported. Indeed, imports and exports, including reexports, each exceed GDP in dollar value. Even before Hong Kong reverted to Chinese administration on 1 July 1997 it had extensive trade and investment ties with China. Per capita GDP compares with the level in the four big economies of Western Europe. GDP growth averaged a strong 5% in 1989-97. The widespread Asian economic difficulties in 1998 hit this trade-dependent economy quite hard, with GDP down 5%. The economy, with growth of 10% in 2000, recovered rapidly from the Asian financial crisis. The recent global downturn has badly hurt Hong Kong's exports and GDP growth is estimated to be 0% in 2001. Private sector analysts project 2002 GDP growth to be 1.8%.
purchasing power parity - $180 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
0% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $25,000 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 0%
industry: 14%
services: 86% (1999 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-1.6% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
3.44 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
wholesale and retail trade, restaurants, and hotels 31%, financing, insurance, and real estate 13%, community and social services 11%, manufacturing 7%, transport and communications 6%, construction 2%, other 30% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
5.2% (2001 est.)
revenues: $22.9 billion
expenditures: $24.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $465 million (FY00/01)
textiles, clothing, tourism, banking, shipping, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks
Industrial production growth rate:
-9% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
29.449 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
35.402 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
1.181 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
9.195 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
fresh vegetables; poultry, fish, pork
$191 billion f.o.b., including reexports (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
clothing, textiles, footwear, electrical appliances, watches and clocks, toys, plastics, precious stones
Exports - partners:
China 34%, US 23%, Japan 6%, Germany 4%, UK 4%, Taiwan 3%, Singapore 2% (2000)
$203 billion (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials, semimanufactures, petroleum, plastics, machinery, electrical equipment; a large share is reexported
Imports - partners:
China 43%, Japan 12%, Taiwan 8%, US 7%, South Korea 5%, Singapore 3% (2000)
Debt - external:
$58.8 billion (2001 est.)
Hong Kong dollar (HKD)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Hong Kong dollars per US dollar - 7.798 (January 2002), 7.7994 (2001), 7.7918 (2000), 7.7589 (1999), 7.7462 (1998), 7.7425 (1997); note - the Hong Kong dollar is linked to the US dollar at a rate of about 7.8 Hong Kong dollars per US dollar
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March